Egypt doesn't have well-defined seasons. Between April and September it is very hot; usually above 35 °C during the day in Cairo and the Delta region, and rising to an average high of about 40 °C in Upper Egypt. October and November average between 25 and 30 °C. The winter period is cooler, with temperatures no higher than 18 or 20 °C in the daytime and down to 5 or 10 at night.
For thousands of years, monsoon rains in the mountains of Ethiopia caused the River Nile to flood and brought rich black silt into the desert. This made the Nile Valley the richest agricultural land in the world. The pharaohs of ancient Egypt took advantage of the regular floods and created a religious government with themselves as gods, who were said to control the rise and fall of the river. The pharaohs ruled for two thousand years, but the reliable harvest made Egypt the prize of occupying empires. During the third century bc, the pharaohs were overthrown by the Greeks, who in turn were toppled by the Romans. For the next two thousand years one occupying force followed another. Then, in 1952, a revolution re-established Egyptian rule over Egypt, and the country became a socialist democracy with an elected parliament and president.
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